Discussion 3posts(200 words each )

(Discussion 1)

Describe a social theory that was discussed in the “Social Relationships and Health” journal article and indicate how it was used to support the research.

From my understanding of the journal for this week, the social theory was how some ones health can be effected with or with out social relations. From the research it touches on how a person or people can be happy and also live longer with better health, when practicing social relationships. The article discuss how the theory of social relationships can make people stringer and healthier. It was used to support the research because the researchers conducted studies not only on humans but animals as well to prove this theory.

Choose one of the quantitative research results presented in the article; describe the evidence presented and indicate which variables of the experiment were highlighted.

The quantitative research results that I choose from the article was when the researchers were discovering that social relationships can cause a risk factors of mortality, and probably morbidity, from a wide range of diseases. From the readings the researchers shown that they used criteria include strength and consistencies of statistical association across a wide range of studies an cause and effect with animals and humans. An experiment of behavior pattern as an risk factor for (type A) heart disease. 1964 Surgeon general had evidence that social relationship and health increased that cigarette smoking was a cause or risk factor for mortality a range of disease. These factors are important because the researchers seen that there is less association of social relationships when it comes to smoking, because smoking is also linked to cancer.

Determine the article’s conclusion in regards to social relationships in society. Based on the accompanying media piece “Why Facebook Could Be Good for Your Health Links to an external site.,” how could modern social media sites support the research findings in the journal article?

Although social relationships as independent, overruling, and moderating variables affecting stress, health, or the relationships between them have been widely studied over the past decade, almost no attention has been paid to social relationships as dependent variables ( House, Landis & Umberson, 1988). I believe that modern social media sites support the claims that social variables determine both health and the nature of social relationships, both link social relationship to health. Modern social media is where you can give updates on thoughts and at one point it was some where you can express freedom of speech.

The course text reading discussed how research can also use the transformative paradigm in social theory to impact social change. How does it do this and what types of societal populations can the transformative paradigm specifically impact?

The researcher’s role and the selection of particular paradigmatic perspectives are affected by the intersection of social justice and mixed methods. A framework for using culturally appropriate mixed methods strategies to address inequality and injustice in society is provided by the transformative paradigm and its associated moral assumptions. There are many different transformative paradigm when it comes to social theory. Things that are consider with mixed method is the type of people that is in consideration as far as LGBT, older people and people with different religions are just an example. A transformative worldview holds that research inquiry needs to be intertwined with politics and a political change agenda to confront social oppression at whatever levels it occurs (Mertens, 2010). Thus, the research contains an action agenda for reform that may change lives of the participants, the institutions in which individuals work or live, and the researcher’s life( Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018).

An important aspect of impactful research is that it should be disseminated through a scholarly document such as a research report or journal article. The author of the course text provides some helpful tips in scholarly writing. What tips did you find most useful to further develop your own scholarly writing in course work which requires research papers or a project?

There were a few of the writing tips that I found very helpful in this week’s reading and something I feel like I need to do to better my writing skills are sharing my writing with supportive, constructive friends until I am ready to go public. I feel as though me and my close circle talk about everything and some things are criticism and sometimes I don’t like what they say, but they are honest. Using theories deductively, investigators advance them at the beginning of the study in the literature review. They also include them with the hypotheses or research questions or place them in a separate section. A script can help design the theory section for a research proposal ( Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018).

(discussion 2)

Describe a social theory that was discussed in the “Social Relationships and Health” journal article and indicate how it was used to support the research. 
This journal article discusses how social relationships can affect a person’s health. People live longer and are happier when they have social relationships. Therefore, people can become stronger and healthier with the theory of social relationships. Thirty studies were conducted on both humans and animals to support this theory.

Choose one of the quantitative research results presented in the article; describe the evidence presented and indicate which experiment variables were highlighted.
Researchers discovered mortality rates for human populations in the articlarticle’sitative research results. According to the research, 4775 adults between 30 and 69 were analyzed nationwide. Their social relationships and mortality rates were measured in the experiment. In addition, their physical health, job, and other factors were identified as risk factors. According to this study, a personperson’sl health and how long they live can be heavily affected by these risk factors.

Determine the articarticle’slusion regarding social relationships in society. For example, based on the accompanying media piece “Why “acebook Could Be Good for Your Health Links to an external site. Links to an external site.,” how”could modern social media sites support the research findings in the journal article?
According to the researchers, biology and the type of personality a person may have are also factors that may affect their health. (House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988). I noticed many similarities between the media piece and the media piece about how interpersonal relationships are helpful for peoplpeople’sth. Modern social media sites all have one thing in common: they have places where you can post photos and videos and share your thoughts. According to the Facebook article, “usin” Facebook to strengthen or create relationships through likes, messages and sharing maintain mental health” (Mo”ammed, 2018, page 3). According to the journal article, the research findings are supported by this media piece, which emphasizes the positive health effects of social media.

The course text reading discussed how research could also use the transformative paradigm in social theory to impact social change. How does it do this, and what types of societal populations can the transformative paradigm specifically impact?
“Thi” philosophical worldview aims to address the needs of marginalized and disenfranchised groups. A theoretical perspective can therefore be integrated with a philosophical assumption, which provides an understanding of the issues to be examined, the people to be studied, and the changes necessary, such as feminist perspectives, racialized discourses, critical theory, queer theory, and disability theory” (C”eswell & Creswell, 2018, sec 1.2). Through an integrative paradigm in societal theory, several impacts will be felt. First, since this is considered a mixed-method study, the types of societal populations that will benefit from this study will be those that are different from ours—for example, gay people, people with disabilities, etc. Connecting on social media platforms like Facebook and Messenger can benefit a persperson’slth. When people can see and speak with each other, they feel happy, which ultimately helps their health and prolongs their lives. The use of social media in the correct manner, because it serves as a means for people to communicate with each other, has the potential to help people live longer lives since they are happier, so they are more inclined to take care of themselves.

An essential aspect of impactful research is that it should be disseminated through a scholarly document such as a research report or journal article. The author of the course text provides some helpful tips in academic writing. What information did you find most useful to further develop your academic writing in coursework which requires research papers or a project?
Following a schedule and getting into the habit of writing was some of the writing tips I found most helpful in chapter four. Establish a plan that suits you best for writing and follow that schedule every day. I found writing as thinking to be the second most helpful tip. Researchers have cited that “wo”king out ideas on paper helps readers visualize the final product, imagine how it looks, and enables them to clarify their ideas” (“reswell & Creswell, 2018, sec 4.2). This tip will be valuable to me since when I write down my ideas, it does not matter if they turn out well or poorly. As soon as I have a few ideas, I can evaluate them, determine which ones are most suitable for my topic, and proceed accordingly. If I follow these two tips during the process, I will be able to achieve the best results.

The Belmont Report of 1979 established three ethical principles for research. Name the three principles and explain each principle.
1. Respect for Persons – “I” is believed that pepeople’sutonomy should be respected and that persons with diminished autonomy should receive protection. In this way, respect for persons is divided into two moral requirements: acknowledgment of autonomy and protection of those with diminished autonomy” “hhs.gov, 2018, p.15). It is pertinent to note that the video adds that “t”e subject must have informed consent. That consent must be conditioned on them having the right to choose what happens to them during the research project” “Daigle, 2014).
2. Beneficence – “E”hical treatment encompasses respecting an inindividual’secision, protecting them from harm, and striving to ensure their well-being. Treatment is beneficial in such cases. It is commonly understood that the term “b”neficence” “efers to acts of kindness or charity that extend beyond strict obligations. This document views beneficence as more than a virtue or obligation. As a complementary expression of beneficent action in this sense, two general rules have been developed: (1) minimize harms while maximizing benefits” “HHS.gov, 2018, p. 21).
3. Justice- “W”o ought to receive research benefits and bear its burdens?” “n other words, justice refers to “f”irness in distribution” “r “r”cognition of what has been deserved.” ” person is deprived of a right for no good reason or is subjected to an undue burden when the request to that benefit is denied unduly. Justice can also be viewed as treating everyone equally (HHS.gov, 2018)

(Discussion 3)

Describe a social theory that was discussed in the “Social Relationships and Health” journal article and indicate how it was used to support the research.

A social theory described in the article “Social Relationships and Health” by James House, Karl Landis, and Debra Umberson was the Social Support theory. This theory discussed a correlation between positive and frequent social relationships and the depreciating of symptoms and/or the digression of diseases, “social relationships might promote health in several ways, but emphasized the role of social relationships in moderating or buffering potentially deleterious health effects of psychosocial stress or other health hazards” (House et al., 1988, p. 541). Research was presented showing that through 30 different studies consisting of humans and animals, it was evidently concluded that social relationships are protective of health (House et al., 1988, p. 541). 

Choose one of the quantitative research results presented in the article; describe the evidence presented and indicate which variables of the experiment were highlighted.

One of the quantitative research methods used was a survey conducted on 4775 adults, between the ages of 30 and 69. This survey evaluated these adults social ties through four factors: marriage, contacts with extended family and friends, church membership, and other group affiliations, through the following nine years these four factors were taken into consideration when creating a health index for each person in regards to mortality (House et al., 1988, p. 541). The variables of this experiment were the four social ties: marriage, contacts with extended family and friends, church memberships, and other group affiliations. These variables were measured based on the mortality rates of the next nine years of the participants based on their involvement with the selected social ties. 

Determine the article’s conclusion in regards to social relationships in society. Based on the accompanying media piece “Why Facebook Could Be Good for Your Health,” how could modern social media sites support the research findings in the journal article?

The articles conclusion in regards to social relationships in society is that there is a correlation between social relationships and an individuals health, “psychological and sociobiological theories suggest that the mere presence of, or sense of relatedness with, another organism may have relatively direct motivational, emotional, or neuroendocrindal effects that promote health” (House et al., 1988, p. 544). However, these social relationships are getting harder to explore and maintain, “Just as we discover the importance of social relationships for health, and see an increasing need for them, their prevalence and availability may be declining” (House et al., 1988, p. 544). 

This problem of maintaining social relationships could be resolved through social media, an idea offered in the article “Why Facebook Could Be Good for Your Health” by Farah Mohammed. As stated prior, social relationships evidently have a positive effect on an individuals health, with the utilization of social media sites, this could help bridge the gap of distance, busy schedules and other common excuses we use to justify why we can’t maintain these relationships, “The modern world, with its pace, relocation, geographic set-up, and turbulent economics, presents relentless challenges to our social circles. Though we may be loathe to admit it, Facebook offers a powerful way to mitigate the corrosive effects of distance, time, and busy schedules” (Mohammed, 2018). 

The course text reading discussed how research can also use the transformative paradigm in social theory to impact social change. How does it do this and what types of societal populations can the transformative paradigm specifically impact?

The Transformative worldview focuses on change through a political agenda, “research inquiry needs to be intertwined with politicsand a political change agenda to confront social oppression at whatever levels it occurs” (Creswell & Creswell, 2018, Sec. 1.2). The transformative paradigm will impact the societal populations that include participants, the institutions in which individuals work orlive, and the researcher’s life (Creswell & Creswell, 2018, Sec. 1.2). The Transformative paradigm aims to cause significant change of powerful topics such as oppression, inequality and alienation by exposing the problem and demanding change through a political agenda. 

An important aspect of impactful research is that it should be disseminated through a scholarly document such as a research report or journal article. The author of the course text provides some helpful tips in scholarly writing. What tips did you find most useful to further develop your own scholarly writing in course work which requires research papers or a project?

The tips that I have found to be most useful to further develop my own scholarly writing is writing multiple drafts, specifically writing four in a span of an hour, each draft being allotted 15min (Creswell & Crewel, 2018, sec. 4.2). Second, is learning and incorporating the hook and eye technique, “the basic idea here is that one sentence builds on the next and sentences in a paragraph build into thenext paragraph. The way this occurs is by specific words that provide a linkage” (Creswell & Crewel, 2018, sec. 4.2). Constituting the hook and eye technique will ensure that I don’t veer or get distracted from the topic of my own scholarly writing. 

Lastly, a research study should always be ethically performed. According to the course text reading and your review of the video, “Research Ethics Involving Human Subjects”, answer the following:

·   

The Belmont Report of 1979 established three ethical principles for research. Name the three principles and explain each principle.

Respect for persons – individuals need to be treated fairly and are entitled to protections as well as consent has to be given by participants (Daigle, 2014). 

Beneficence – humans subjects should not be harmed and the research benefits should be maximized while keeping the risk to humans minimized  (Daigle, 2014). 

Justice – Benefits and risks of assessments must be fairly conveyed to participants (Daigle, 2014). 

All Universities and Research Institutions are federally mandated to follow ethics guidelines in the research performed which include the principles of The Belmont Report of 1979 – name what this set of guidelines is commonly known as, and describe what it covers.

This set of guidelines is known as “The Common Rule”. These guideline’s ensure that research institutions are abiding by the requirements set forth to ensure safe research is being conducted and vulnerable research is being protected (Daigle, 2014). 

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