1. The first example of a research method can be what is called descriptive methods. Descriptive methods utilizes naturalistic observation, intensive individual case study, surveys/questionnaires/interviews and correlational studies. A second example of research methods would be experimental research method. An experiment is a procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, refuting, or establishing the validity of a hypotheses. Experiments provide insight into cause and effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated.
2. Scientific method is research method using critical thinking, based on observation. There are six elements that include but are not limited to; observation, defining a problem, proposing a hypothesis, gathering evidence (and testing the evidence), theory building, and publishing results (Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. 2013). Scientific observation is by gathering information directly from the source and can be confirmed by more than one person. In the scientific method, scientific observation is used. Scientific observation is carefully planned out by the researcher.
Critical thinking is very similar to the scientific method, both using observation and analyzing the problem, with supportive evidence. Critical thinking is a research method of asking questions and looking to the evidence to support hypothesis. The way they are different is critical thinking reflects on ideas and evaluate weakness of the theory looking for alternate conclusions where as scientific method bases its research off of proof and what can be confirmed.
3. I select Abraham Maslow, his motivational hierarchy pyramid has been a revolutionary contribution to psychology. His and Carl Rogers’ humanistic method is to me a more reasonable approach I tend to believe in the power of choice that determines destiny. I realize there are forces and circumstances that happen in life beyond our control but I tend to think and believe that we ultimately have to make choices on how those will affect our life. From self-preservation to self-actualization is theorized as a list of choices made. I have said many times “the same sun that hardens the clay softens the butter.” I believe this method is very relevant today